Choices that you make about Social Security can make a big difference in your retirement income. Most people understand that the longer they wait to take benefits, the higher their monthly payment will be. However, as reported in Kiplinger’s December article, “Social Security: Delay or Hit Go?,” that’s not the right answer for everyone. You’ll be able to make a better decision, if you understand how Social Security rules work and by making an honest assessment of your individual situation.
Social Security 101. First, a short tutorial on Social Security benefits and how they're calculated. What the federal government deems you to be at full retirement age benefit begins between ages 65 and 67, based on when you were born. The amount of money that you receive is based on an inflation-adjusted average of your 35 highest-earning years. You can begin collecting Social Security benefits as early as age 62—but your monthly benefit amount will be permanently locked in at about 30% less than your full benefit amount, which depends on your current age, full retirement age, and income. If you can delay taking your benefits, they’ll grow. If you delay until age 70, your monthly Social Security benefit will be about 135% of your full benefit.
Whether you’re better off waiting to get fewer years of higher income or starting earlier to get more years of lower income really depends on your individual situation. Some of the factors that should be considered include other income sources, your life expectancy, your spouse's benefits, and your risk profile. While there's no one correct answer to the question, there are some ways of thinking about benefits that can help you to find the right answer.
Spousal Benefits. If you're married or were married for more than 10 years and didn’t remarry, you may be eligible for spousal benefits at a maximum of 50% of your partner's full retirement age benefit.
Interest Rates. Each year you delay taking benefits "earns" you an additional 8% in Social Security income down the road, giving you a very attractive rate of return—and Social Security is guaranteed. Social Security benefits are also indexed to inflation, so when you begin receiving your checks the income will keep pace with the rising cost of living. Think about that fact when choosing between starting Social Security and using your investments to supplement retirement income. It is also important to understand that your decision could affect your estate plan, since using your investment assets could result in less money in your estate.
Longevity and Health. People who rely on Social Security to fund their retirement may not have the option to delay taking benefits when they retire. If your health is poor and you don’t expect to live into yours 90s or even 80s, then delaying benefits may not be a priority for you.
Some of these issues are easier to grapple with than others. Generally speaking, consider all of your circumstances, from retirement income to longevity, before making a final decision about Social Security benefits.
Reference: Kiplinger’s (December 2016) “Social Security: Delay or Hit Go?”